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Improving Your Dog's Gut Health

Looking to improve your dog’s gut health? We breakdown all you need to know about gut health in dogs and why it matters so you have everything you need to get started.

Written by Raquel Astacio. Published in November 2022.

We’ve all heard the saying, “what goes in must come out!” This optimistically witty phrase is often used after a long night of binge drinking to console a drunken, sour-stomached soul or to make light of the fact that something is stuck in the body where it shouldn’t be. Those of us whose dogs possess a taste for socks, underwear, and toys can attest to the latter.

This phrase may be unusual, but it holds true. What goes into the body does, in fact, come back out. But when it comes to your dog’s gut health, there’s a whole lot more to it than that. From the food your pup eats to the bacteria that reside in their belly, everything can have an effect on your dog’s digestive system and, therefore, the body as a whole. It is, for this reason, that maintaining your pet’s gut health is so vitally important.

According to holistic veterinary specialist Julie Anne Lee, over 80% of a dog's immune system lives in the gut. If that’s true, it’s easy to understand why gut health is so important, especially when it comes to our canine friends. But what exactly is gut health anyways, and why does it matter so much? Let’s take a closer look.

What is Gut Health in Dogs and Why Does it Matter?

The canine digestive system is a complex and fascinating thing, especially when it comes to the gut. Existing within your pet’s gut is a unique compilation of hundreds of microorganisms (such as bacteria and other microbes). This collection is referred to as the gut microbiome. It breaks down food, synthesizes nutrients, and protects against harmful pathogens.

The composition of the gut microbiome varies from dog to dog and can be influenced by diet, age, health status, and other factors. A healthy microbiome (or a healthy “gut”) is crucial for your pet’s overall well-being, as it can play a significant role in the proper functionality of major systems, from nutrient absorption to mental health.

There exists, within a healthy gut, a delicate balance of both good and bad bacteria that the gut itself is responsible for keeping in check. However, when outside factors such as dietary indiscretion, antibiotics, or stress come into play, the bad bacteria take over. Uncomfortable symptoms, such as vomiting or diarrhea, will occur when there simply aren’t enough good bacteria remaining within the gut to create balance.

The different parts of the digestive system each have their own unique role to play, but they all rely on one another to function properly. That’s why gut health is so important for dogs. When something goes wrong in one part of the digestive system, it can have a ripple effect throughout the entire body.

Signs of Poor Gut Health in Dogs

There are several things that can impact your dog’s gut health, from diet and exercise to stress levels and medication. Even something as simple as a change in routine can disrupt the delicate balance of bacteria in your dog’s gut. That’s why it’s so important to be aware of anything that might upset your pup’s stomach and take steps to prevent it.

As we’ve learned, things begin to go awry when the balance of good and bad bacteria in your pup’s gut is disproportionate. This can be caused by various outside factors, including dietary indiscretion and environmental changes. In most cases, the first signs that something is amiss within your pet’s gut are vomiting and diarrhea, but those certainly aren’t the only signs of an unhealthy gut. Other signs may include:

  • Bloating or Stomach Distention
  • Excess Gas
  • Constipation
  • Fatigue or Lethargy
  • Skin Issues
  • Poor Coat Quality
  • Weight Loss or Gain

Dogs are also susceptible to a condition called “leaky gut syndrome,” which causes increased intestinal permeability. Leaky gut occurs when the lining of the intestines becomes damaged, allowing bacteria and other toxins to leak into the bloodstream. To simplify the idea of leaky gut, one may think of it this way:

Imagine that your gut is like a net. Now imagine that that net has holes in it. That’s what leaky gut is - a gut with holes in it. And just like a net with holes in it lets fish through, a gut with holes in it lets bacteria and other stuff through, too. This can lead to chronic inflammation, causing all sorts of secondary issues.

In most cases, leaky gut is caused by long-term damage or trauma to your pet’s intestines. This damage stems from, you guessed it, a bacterial imbalance in your pet’s gut. Now we’re really starting to understand why gut health is so important.

Causes of an Unhealthy Gut

A dog’s gut is perhaps one of the body’s most sensitive parts. It seems as though anything and everything can impact a pup’s gut health, whether for better or worse. Changes in your pup’s environment, medication, stress, and diet can all have a significant effect. But the leading culprit in most cases? Antibiotics.


For years, antibiotics were thought of as a miracle cure-all for illness and disease, but that isn’t always the case. Sometimes antibiotics can do more harm than good, especially in relation to the gut. Antibiotics are designed to kill bacteria, and while this is a good thing in many cases, it can also be damaging. That’s because antibiotics cannot discriminate between good and bad bacteria.

An antibiotic enters your pet’s gut with one purpose: to completely annihilate all bacteria in its path, both good and bad. And because the balance of bacteria in a dog’s gut is so delicate to begin with, this can cause serious damage. As we know, an insufficiency of good gut bacteria can lead to illness, digestive issues, and a weakened immune system (to name a few).


As we’ve learned, the gut is home to a complex and diverse community of microbes, which play a crucial role in digesting food, absorbing nutrients, and protecting the body from infection. When a dog is stressed, this delicate balance can be disturbed, leading to gastrointestinal problems such as diarrhea, vomiting, and appetite loss.

While it is often impossible to completely remove stress from a dog’s life, there are many things that owners can do to help reduce their dog’s anxiety. Providing a calm and stable environment, exercising regularly, and feeding a nutritious diet are all important ways to alleviate stress, thereby maintaining your dog’s gut health.


Just like people, dogs need to eat a well-balanced diet to stay healthy. However, many dog owners are unaware of just how harmful an inappropriate diet can be to their dog’s gut microbiome. And as we’ve learned, when the gut microbiome is out of balance, it can lead to a whole host of problems.

Food is, perhaps, the most essential element when it comes to supporting your pup’s gut health. A diet that is high in processed foods and low in fiber can easily disrupt the gut microbiome and lead to inflammation, causing digestive issues such as diarrhea, gas, and bloating.

In extreme cases, poor gut health can even lead to more serious problems such as dementia or obesity. Therefore, it is important to be mindful of what you feed your dog and ensure they get the nutrients they need to keep their gut healthy.

Other Causes to Consider

While diet, stress, and antibiotics are three of the most common causes of poor gut health in dogs, there are a slew of other things that could also be problematic. Those we can’t neglect to mention include:

  • Immune-Suppressant Drugs (such as Cyclosporine)
  • Steroids
  • Drugs that treat intestinal parasites
  • Environmental Toxins
  • Long-Term use of NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs)

Improving and Restoring Your Dog's Gut Health

Now that we’ve learned why a healthy gut is so important, it’s time to answer the question we’ve all been wondering: “How can I improve my dog’s gut health?” Fortunately, most of the methods we will discuss here are natural remedies for dog gut health that can be accomplished at home.

Feed a Well-Balanced Diet

This may seem like a no-brainer, but it’s worth repeating. Dogs are what they eat, so feeding your dog a nutritious, well-balanced diet is crucial to maintaining a happy and healthy gut. Look for food that is high in fiber and contains quality ingredients like lean meats, vegetables, and healthy fats.

In addition to quality dog food, you can also add a few of the following superfoods to your pup’s bowl. Not only will these foods help improve your pup’s gut health, but they’re sure to love the taste!

  • Cooked Lean Meats (such as turkey or chicken - no seasoning!)
  • Sweet Potatoes
  • Eggs
  • Dog-Approved Berries (such as blueberries, strawberries, blackberries, or raspberries)
  • Collard Leafy Greens
  • Broccoli or Cauliflower
  • Cabbage
  • Pumpkin

Feeding your dog raw or fermented foods can also help to improve their gut health and overall well-being. Raw foods contain specific enzymes that help to break down nutrients, making them more easily absorbed by the body, while fermented foods, such as goat milk or beets, are rich in beneficial bacteria. This can help to restore balance in the gut and alleviate digestive woes. Plus, raw and fermented foods contain vitamins, minerals, and antioxidants that support a healthy immune system.


Probiotics are live microorganisms that can help to restore the balance of good bacteria in the gut. When your dog’s gut is healthy, they are better able to absorb nutrients and ward off infection. Probiotics can be found in many different dog-friendly foods, including yogurt and kefir. You can also find probiotics in supplement form. If you’re looking to boost your dog’s gut health, probiotics are a great place to start.


Exercise is vital for overall health, and the gut is no exception. When your dog spends time outside running and playing, it helps stimulate the digestive system and keeps things moving smoothly (if you know what we mean).

Maintain a Stress-Free Environment

Stress can wreak havoc on our digestive systems, and dogs are no exception. Try to keep your dog’s environment calm and free from anything that might cause undue stress. If your dog seems anxious or stressed, talk to your veterinarian about possible solutions, such as dog anxiety medication, melatonin, or alternative therapeutic approaches.

Fecal Microbiota Transplant

Dogs have a complex and delicate gut microbiome that plays an important role in their overall health. Unfortunately, the gut microbiome of dogs is often disrupted by antibiotic treatment, which can lead to few gastrointestinal issues.

A fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) is a promising new treatment for restoring gut health in dogs. The procedure involves transplanting healthy gut bacteria from a donor animal into the gut of the dog receiving the transplant. Studies have shown that FMT can be highly effective in reducing gastrointestinal symptoms and improving gut health. In addition, FMT is safe and well-tolerated by most dogs, with few side effects. As such, it may offer a valuable treatment option for dogs suffering from chronic gastrointestinal issues.

FAQs About Dog Gut Health

"Can I test my dog's gut health?"

Most dog owners have wondered about the health of their furry friend’s gut at one point or another. After all, a healthy gut is essential for overall health and well-being. So, can you test your dog’s gut health? The answer is yes!

There are a few different ways to test your dog’s gut health. One option is to take a stool sample to your veterinarian for analysis. This can provide insight into the types of bacteria present in your dog’s gut and whether there is an imbalance. Another option is to do a food elimination trial, which involves removing all potential triggers from your dog’s diet and then slowly reintroducing them one at a time. This can help to identify any foods that may be causing digestive issues.

Finally, you can also look for signs of gut health issues manifesting in your dog’s behavior. Things like excessive licking, chewing, or scratching can be indicative of GI tract discomfort. If you notice any of these signs, it’s important to talk to your vet to rule out other potential causes and develop a plan to improve your dog’s gut health.

"How long does it take for a dog's gut to heal?"

A dog’s gut is an intricate and sensitive ecosystem, and it can take some time for it to heal after an upset. The exact timeline will vary depending on the cause of the disturbance and the severity of the symptoms, but most dogs will start to feel better within a few days. The healing process can be further supported by feeding your dog a nutritious diet and providing plenty of fresh water. With a little time and care, your dog’s gut will be back to normal in no time.

"Can gastroenteritis affect my dog's gut health?"

Gastroenteritis is an inflammatory condition of the digestive system, including the gut. Symptoms include vomiting, diarrhea, lack of appetite, and abdominal pain. While gastroenteritis is usually not fatal, it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. In severe cases, gastroenteritis can even cause intestinal rupture.

If your dog is showing signs of gastroenteritis, it is important to take them to the vet as soon as possible. Treatment typically involves fluids and rest, but in some cases, antibiotics may also be necessary. Although gastroenteritis can be a serious condition, most dogs make a full recovery with proper treatment.


New research is beginning to shed light on just how important the gut microbiome is for dogs - and how much of an impact it can have on their overall health. In recent years, scientists have begun to realize that the microbiome also plays a key role in immunity, inflammation, and even behavior.

As a result, maintaining a healthy gut microbiome is essential for keeping your dog healthy and happy. Fortunately, there are a few simple things you can do to support your dog’s gut health. Feeding a high-quality diet, supplementing with probiotics, and keeping your dog’s life as stress-free as possible are all great ways to promote a healthy gut microbiome. And when you take care of your dog’s gut health, you’re taking care of their whole body.

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